The article considers factors that reduce the speed of reading and the depth of mastering the content of the text.
Reading literature is at a different pace. Already during the preliminary acquaintance with the book, you can see that when looking through the table of contents or leafing through the selected section of the book, the reader most often simply looks for the material there, quickly and quickly grasps the general meaning of the reader without dwelling on details. But here the necessary material is found. And then, stop! There is a switching speed – the reader seems to freeze over the text, again and again returns to the desired line: comprehends, weighs, compares and absorbs, trying not to lose what it found.
The work with the book, the study of the material in the preparation of a question, as a rule, take place in the form of reading “about oneself.” How does it happen and what determines its pace? No, not from the rapidity with which the eye moves along the line. The main role in reading speed is played by fixation. On average, for one fixation, that is, for stopping the eye to perceive information, 0.15 seconds pass, and on average, an adult takes 2-4 words, that is, somewhere up to. 30 characters. Incidentally, the bandwidth of the visual and auditory analyzers in humans is different. Pronouncing and listening extremely slow reading. Reading aloud is much slower than reading to oneself.
It is customary to distinguish four types of reading: lettering, poslovoe, reading, words and blocks of words, or complex reading. The preschooler “stumbles” on each letter, later, when reading, syllables are allocated or fixed, even later than words. Each fixation means stopping the look at the line. The more stops, the slower the rate of reading. Hence, to learn to read quickly, you need to develop the ability to do less of these stop-fixations, and for every stop to take as many letters, syllables, words as possible.
Such part of the text that the view perceives during one fixation is usually called the field of view. It is considered good if it reaches 5-6 centimeters on average, but by training it is possible to increase this field to 10 centimeters. Determine the individual parameters of the field of vision can be done with the help of a doctor in the eye cabinet or independently, by approximately calculating the length of a line in a read book and the number of fixations when reading it. On average, a person makes up to 12-16 fixes on each line. And training for a month or two already allows you to reduce their number to four or even two.
What else slows down the pace of our reading to ourselves? Among these slowing factors is articulation – the work of the speech motor. The speed of human speech is known to be about 150 words per minute. This turns out to be the speed of reading, when the entire text read by the eyes “speaks out” and “listens”. Open articulation, however, is often absent: the reader does not read the read even in a whisper, does not move his lips. In this case, the speech process has the form of an internal, so-called soundless speech, which accompanies the reading process. Often it is like an unfolded inner speech. It is as detailed and slow as the external speech.
From the lack of internal pronunciation can be disaccustomed to through certain training, but this technique is the subject of a separate discussion.